Wednesday, July 1, 2009

Muthurajawela Sanctuary

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Country: Sri Lanka

Coordinates: 7°03'N, 79°55'E;

Location: Between Hendala and Ja-Ela, 10 km northeast of Colombo, Gampaha District,

Western Province.

Area: 2,429 ha.

Altitude: Near sea level.

Biogeographically Province: 4.2.1.

Wetland type: 07, 08 & 15.

Description of site: A large area of brackish marshes, mangrove swamps and freshwater marshes on the coastal plain of the wet zone, northeast of Colombo. The wetland merges into Negombo Lagoon (site 32) to the Northwest. The main marsh is traversed by a navigational canal (the Hamilton Canal). In 1767, the first reclamation project commenced on the orders of Iman William Flack, the then Governor of Ceylon. Several attempts have since been made to reclaim the area, but mostly with little success because of the acid sulphate soils.

Climatic conditions: Tropical monsoonal climate; in the low country wet zone.

Principal vegetation: Mangrove swamps and grassy marshes.

Land tenure: The wetland is state owned; surrounding areas are privately owned.

Conservation measures taken: None.

Conservation measures proposed: As one of the few marshes in the Colombo area which has not yet been reclaimed for agriculture or filled in for development, Muthurajawela Swamp should be protected, not only for the benefit of wetland fauna and flora, but also as a recreational area (Hoffmann, 1987). There is now a movement by local NGOs to have at least essential portions of the marsh protected.

Land use: In historic times, the wetland was used for paddy cultivation, but salt intrusion has led to the abandonment of cultivation.

Possible changes in land use: The Greater Colombo Economic Commission has put forward a proposal to fill the marsh for housing developments and industrial estates.

Disturbances and threats: The principal long-term threat is reclamation for urban and industrial development. Present disturbances include heavy shooting pressure, the cutting of mangroves for poles, over-fishing and illicit manufacture of liquor.

Fauna: An important area for a wide variety of water birds, including many herons and egrets, Anastomus oscitans, Dendrocygna javanica and wintering ducks (mainly Anasquer quedula and A. acuta). Waterfowl recorded during the mid-winter censuses in January 1987 and January 1988 included Phalacrocorax carbo, Ixobrychus sinensis, I. flavicollis, Ardeola

grayii, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta intermedia (250), Ardea cinerea, Dendrocygna javanica (120),

Porphyrio porphyrio, Vanellus indicus and Gallinago stenura.

Flora: Mangroves, canals and other species

The name Muthurajawela has been derived from Sinhalese language which the majority of Sri Lankans use to communicate. The meaning can be translated in to English simply as “Swamp of Royal Treasure”. Treasures of kings in olden days are believed to be buried in that area.

The boundaries span from Negombo lagoon which also helps to create a costal eco system, and Kelaniya River situated at the northern tip of Colombo. Muthurajawela is in close proximity to Colombo. Muthurajawela bears staggering species of flora and fauna. Numerically 192 flora and 209 fauna, excluding 102 species of birds have been discovered. Some indigenous floras and faunas have also been found in Muthurajawela marsh. Visitors may see water birds such as herons, egrets in abundance in the lagoon and the marsh. It is also a residence for 40 different species of fish, of which 15 falls under the category of indigenous fauna. The nocturnal animal, slender Loris, which is believed to be endangered, can be seen once in a blue moon.

Muthurajawela marsh has been declared as s sanctuary by the government in 1996 due to its vast bio diversity. Visitors may be assisted by the Muthurajawela marsh centre. The centre educates people about the importance of Muthurajawela.

Saturday, June 20, 2009

Solid Waste Management (Bandarawela, Badulla Hali-Ela and Meegahakiwula Townships)


Waste is a valuable resource, but it is in wrong place, wrong form and wrong media. Urban Solid Waste has some value. But from 19th centaury to today urbanize there was a rise of problems with the ways of wrong waste management (Mainly Disposal). But we were tried to use mostly Solid Waste for a valuable resource and least of disposal.

  • Solid waste was one of main problem in Bandarawela, Badulla, Meegahakiwula and Hali – Ela townships
  • That project were identified problems and methods for Solid Waste Management in these townships
  • Proposed some solutions for that problems and systematic methods (Composting, Recycling and Land filling).

According to that research Hali – Ela and Meegahakiwula towns were not use to systematic method for Solid Waste Management. The Badulla Township was inaugurating some systematic Solid Waste Management. As such the Bandarawela Township was using systematic Solid Waste Management and maintaining it well.


Municipal Solid Waste was a main problem in Sri Lanka. Systematic Solid Waste Management was not used properly was reason for that. Urbanize and materials were did not use properly is cause for Municipal Solid Waste, also called urban solid waste, is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes collected by a municipality within a given area. They are in either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes. The term Residual Waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing.

There are five broad categories of Municipal solid waste:

Meegahakiwula and Hali – Ela Townships were not higher urbanized areas. But Badulla and Bandarawela were comparatively higher urbanized areas. At that reason mainly Badulla and Bandarawela Townships were have the Solid Waste Problems. Accordingly Bandarawela Municipal Council was doing Solid Waste Management Scheme and Badulla Municipal Council was beginning Solid Waste Management Scheme. In that all Townships were polluted the environment when did not use that Solid Waste Management systematically. But the Bandarawela Solid Waste Management Scheme was minimized the environmental pollution as well.


Graphite is one of main non-metallic minerals available in Sri Lanka, occurring mainly in highland complex. In Sri Lanka Graphite is mainly extracted through underground mining located at Kahatagaha, Kolongaha, Rangala and Bogala. This study was carried out to investigate the distribution of underground vain patterns below 275th fm level at Bogala Mine, Aruggammana in Kegalle District in Sabaragamuwa Province.

For this study, several diamond drill holes were made from three selected areas in 275th fm level of Kumbul split vain to 290th fm and 310th fm levels with different angles. The core samples obtained from the holes were logged. Then Carbon percentage and density of Graphite were experimentally determined. The rock types, their structure, Graphite vains and their structures were identified thought logging. The log results were interpreted by using Surpac and Auto CAD software packages. Then vein map, Geological map below 275th fm level and cross section map were drawn by using Auto CAD. Afterwards, Ore reservoir in the mapped area was estimated using the thicknesses and distribution of Graphite vains.

Biotite Gneiss, Chanockite Gneiss, Garnet Biotite Gneiss and Quartzite were there as main rocks. In addition to that Iron pyrites was also there. The8% and the Density was 1.89 tons/m -3. Their main vein patterns wer Carbon percentage of Graphite was in between 95% and 9e identified such as Kumbuk main vein, Kumbuk split veins and Kumbuk off veins. 10528.486 tons of Graphite of Kumbuk main veins were estimated. Bogala mines Graphite was extracted 7500 tons per year. According to this extracting rate of Bogala mine, this would be enough for one year and five months. But it was very difficult to reach Kumbuk veins 290th fm and Kumbuk veins 310thfm levels in the mine.

Density of Birds in the Sabaragamuwa University Premises, Belihuloya


Sri Lanka possesses a rich diversity of birds compared to other countries in the region, but studies on these interesting taxa are limited. The present study on birds at Sabaragamuwa University premises was carried out as an effort of filling this gap to some extent.

The data was collected from two different habitat types i.e. Shrub land associated with human disturbances having water body (campus) and small forest patch with tree’s ever-green forest(campus).The birds sampling was carved out along four transects (100m) in each habitat. Sampling was performed morning form 6.00 am to 9.00 am and evening from 3.30 pm to 6.30 pm Six days form 21-may 2008 to 05- June 2008.shannon index (H’) was used to compare the butterfly species diversity.

54 bird species belonging to 20 families were recorded including 3 endemic species; White-throated Flower pecker, Sri Lanka Jungle fowl and Sri Lanka Brown-capped Babbler.45 and 41 birds’ species were recorded respectively in campus and forest habitat. Shannon index in campus and forest area were 2.462 and 2.086. There was not a much difference in Shannon index diversity index between above two habitats. Red-vented Bulbul, House Sparrows are abundant in campus habitat and Sri Lanka Jungle fowl is abundant in forest habitat. White forest habitat common species are low density and campus area common species density is high. Sri Lanka Jungle fowl and Yellow-billed Babbler are common in all two habitat types.

Curriculum Vitae

E – mail :
Web :
Tel. No : (+94)0 715301327, (+94)0 602554098


Achieving a Challenging Position in the field of Environmental Science and Natural Resources Management offering the Occasion to make use of my Professional & Academic Proficiency with Opportunity for developing my Career.

Tertiary Education:
Degree Programme : B.Sc. Special Degree Program (English Medium), Environmental Science and Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka.

Major Subject Areas Offered:

Environmental Science

Subjects Covered under Degree Program:

Mathematics for Biological & Chemical Science Organic Chemistry
Fundamental of Statistics Computer Literacy
Introductory Biology Basic Management Principles
Fundamental Physics Inorganic Chemistry

Fundamental of Microbiology Ecology
Fundamental of Economics Soil Science
Computer programming Earth Science I
Physical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry
Introduction to Natural Resource

Aerial Photo Interpretation & Remote Sensing Forestry
Industrial Chemistry I Mineralogy & Petrology
Earth Science II Environmental Science
Statistics II Limnology

Environmental Impact Assessment Industrial Chemistry II
Coastal & Marine Resource Soil Erosion & Conservation
General Hydrology Natural Resource Economics
Statistical Application in Natural Resource (Minitab)
Field Techniques in Study of Natural Resource
Analytical Techniques in the Study of Natural Resource

Ground Water Exploration Mineral Exploration
Natural Resource Management Environmental Geo Chemistry
Information Access & Communication Energy Resource Management

Environmental Law
Human Resource Management
Principles of Cleaner Production & their Application
Selected topics in Natural Resource Management (Viva)
Statistical Application & Mathematical Modeling in Natural Resource Management (SAS)

Environmental Pollution Control Measures and Risk Assessment
Protected Area Management
Critical Thinking
Disaster Management

· Viva (Overall Presentation) in Waste Water Treatments.
· Viva (Overall Presentation) in Siltation of Hydropower Reservoirs in Sri Lanka.
· Mini Projects. (Diversity and Abundance of Birds in 2 Selected Habitats in the Sabaragamuwa University Premises, Belihuloya)
· B. Sc. Thesis in Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management and Presentation. (Study of Vein Pattern System below 257th fm in Bogala Mines based on Diamond Drill Data)

Secondary Education:

School Attended: B/Taldena Navodya Maha Vidyalaya

G.C.E (A/L) Examination (2003):
· Passed with 02Cs & 01S in Bio Science Stream, including 02Cs for Biology & Agri Science and S Grade for Chemistry.

G.C.E (O/L) Examination (1999):
Passed with 04Ds (Mathematics, Agriculture, Social Studies, Music) & 03Cs (Buddhism , Science and Sinhala)


Computer Technology

Microsoft Office Packages (MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power Point, MS Access etc.)
Statistical Applications (MINITAB,SAS)
WEB Designing (HTML, Java Script)
Graphics (Photoshop, Corel Draw, Premiere)
Drawing & 3D Modeling (Auto CAD 2009)
Mine & Geological Modeling and Designing (Surpac 6.1)

Language Skills

· English & Sinhala with good speaking and writing ability

· Participated for the Research Project called “Temporal and Spatial Patterns on the Occurrence of Human-Elephant Conflict Incidents in Southeastern Sri Lanka”, conducted by the University of Tokyo
· Trained at Bogala Mines Sri Lanka as a Geologist
· Presently doing self research on Solid Waste Management in Bandarawela, Badulla, Meegahakiwula and Hali – Ela Townships and finding solutions for Systematic Solid Waste Management

Graphite Explorations Areas

o Underground Exploration and Geological Mapping
o Underground Surveying and Mapping
o Core Logging and Sample Analyzing
o Diamond Drilling and Tunnel Profile Surveying
o Ore Reserve Calculation
o Calculate Graphite Carbon Percentage and Density
o Drafting Activity using Auto CAD 2009 & Surpac 6.1 (Mechanical Drawing and Building plan)


At the Sinharaja Forest & Horton Plans
Study Area: Bio Diversity, Geology & Environmental Condition
· At the Bogala Mine, Kaikawala Feldspar Mine, Puttalam Cement Cooperation, Pelwatte Sugar Company (Pvt.) Ltd.
Study Area: Geological Structure, Environmental Condition, and Human & Animal Health
· At the VRR Forestation & Watawala
Study Area: Hydro Power Reservoir Siltation, Structure, Operation in Hydropower Plant,
Bio Diversity, Land Slide & 05s (Rantembe)
· At the NERD, BOI and Muthurajawela
Study Area: Energy Resource Managements, Waste Water Treatments, Bio Diversity


· Valued Contributor who performs effectively under Pressure and Thrives on Challenge.
· Excellent Communicator and Good Listener.
· Enthusiastic Learner who quickly grasps Concepts and Technical Skills.
· Optimistic and innovative Idea Generator.
· Highly Analytical Team Player with Aptitude for quickly Scrutinizing Environments to identify and prioritize Needs/Risks and Generate Solutions.


· During my Course, Working on Team Projects has involved Different Roles, which have developed Negotiation and Persuasion Skills.
· Good Communication Skills gained by Chairing Meetings, Advising and Instructing Team Members and Association Members.
· Experience of working within a Team Based Culture involved Planning, Organization, Coordination and Commitment.
· Participated to the Workshop on Social and Interpersonal Skills Development.
Workshop Directed by Mr. Bimal Rajakaruna (Human Resources Manager, Professional Counselor and Trainer)
· Seminar on Career Development and Positive Thinking.
Seminar Directed by Mr. Bimal Rajakaruna (Human Resources Manager, Professional Counselor and Trainer) and Conducted by Career Guidance Division, Ministry of Labour Relations and Foreign Employment Collaboration with Faculty of Applied Science.
Extra Curricular Activities

· President of the School Literacy Association in 1999.
· Performance in Athletics & Cricket
· Good Driver in Light Vehicles


· Name in Full : Maha Hettige Anurasiri Wickramanayake
· Date of Birth : 11th of November 1983
· Age : 25Years
· Gender : Male
· N. I. C. No : 833161750V
· Marital Status : Bachelor
· Nationality : Sinhalese


· Prof. Mahinda Rupasinghe,
Vice Chancellor
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka,
Tel: +94(0)45-2280012
Fax: +94(0)45-2280128

· Dr. A.L.T. Hewawasam,
Head of the Department,
Department of Natural Resources,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka,
Tel: +94(0)714453418
+ 94(0)812204421

I do hereby certify that the above particulars are true and accurate to the best of my knowledge.

M. H. A. Wickramanayake